OSPF (Open Short Path First) Routing Protocol Implemented using Dijkstra Algorithm

  • Dijkstra’s Algorithm basically starts at the node that you choose (the source node) and it analyzes the graph to find the shortest path between that node and all the other nodes in the graph.
  • The algorithm keeps track of the currently known shortest distance from each node to the source node and it updates these values if it finds a shorter path.
  • Once the algorithm has found the shortest path between the source node and another node, that node is marked as “visited” and added to the path.
  • The process continues until all the nodes in the graph have been added to the path. This way, we have a path that connects the source node to all other nodes following the shortest path possible to reach each node.
  • The protocol recalculates routes when network topology changes, using the Dijkstra algorithm, and minimises the routing protocol traffic that it generates.
  • It provides support for multiple paths of equal cost.
  • It provides a multi-level hierarchy (two-level for OSPF) called “area routing,” so that information about the topology within a defined area of the AS is hidden from routers outside this area. This enables an additional level of routing protection and a reduction in routing protocol traffic.
  • All protocol exchanges can be authenticated so that only trusted routers can join in the routing exchanges for the AS.

OSPF Packet format-

Formula used for comparing two nodes to find minimum value

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